奥斯曼帝国为何不参与大航海时代的海外扩张活动_2

2019-12-14 22:46:16

奥斯曼帝国不是没有反应,严格说是有心无力,事实是打着奥斯曼帝国旗号的势力远比中国网民想象的多和范围大。举一个著名的海盗头子扬詹森.凡.哈勒姆为例以下内容来自维基百科JanJanszoon-Wikipedia他的名字叫扬詹森.凡.哈勒姆或穆拉德.里斯(JanJansenVanHaarlemorMouradReis)。他是改宗成为穆斯林的荷兰佬。但他为奥斯曼/摩尔效力。他攻击过冰岛和rland,或者和任何其他的欧洲海盗一样驶向北大西洋(甚至也许美国)?从17世纪初开始,奥斯曼舰队开始进军到大西洋(早期,在1501年曾航行到加那利群岛,而穆拉德.里斯于1585年夺取了兰萨罗特中的加那利群岛)。1617年奥斯曼帝国舰队占领大西洋马德拉,袭击前苏塞克斯,普利茅斯,德文郡,哈特兰,在1625年8月康沃尔郡和西部英格兰的其他县遭到奥斯曼海盗袭击。1627年奥斯曼海军舰艇的陪同下,巴巴里海岸的海盗,袭击了设得兰群岛,法罗群岛,丹麦,挪威和冰岛。1627和1631相同的,奥斯曼帝国的力量还袭击的爱尔兰和瑞典海岸。1655年40艘奥斯曼艘舰队在布里斯托尔海峡占领小岛伦迪,这里曾担任北大西洋奥斯曼海军和私掠业务的主要基地,直到1660年,奥斯曼船舶出现在北美东部沿海,尤其是被看见在像英国殖民地纽芬兰和弗吉尼亚州。Thisarticleisaboutthe17thcenturyDutchpirate.FortheDutchcartographer,seeJanJanssonius.JanJanszoonGrandAdmiralofSaléInoffice1619–1627GovernorofSalé(ceremonial)Inoffice1623–1627AppointedbySultanZidanAbuMaaliGovernorofOualidiaInoffice1640–1641AppointedbySultanMohammedeshSheikhesSeghirPersonaldetailsBornJanJanszoonvanHaarlemc.1570Haarlem,NorthHolland,NetherlandsDied1641orlaterMoroccoNationalityDutch,MoroccanChildrenLysbethJanszoonvanHaarlem,AnthonyJanszoonvanSalee,AbrahamJanszoonvanSalee,PhilipJanszoonvanSalee,CornelisJanszoonvanSaleeOccupationPirateReligionIslamMilitaryserviceAllegianceMoroccoRankGrandAdmiral(Reis)JanJanszoonvanHaarlem,commonlyknownasMuratReistheYounger(c.1570–c.1641)wasthefirstPresidentandGrandAdmiraloftheCorsairRepublicofSalé,GovernorofOualidia,andaDutchBarbarypirate,oneofthemostfamousofthe"SaléRovers"fromthe17thcentury.Contents[hide]1Earlylife2Privateering3CapturebyBarbarycorsairs4RepublicofSalé4.1PleafromDutchfamily5Diplomacy5.1Dutchcaptives5.2Franco-MoroccanTreatyof16316Notableraids6.1Lundy6.2Grindavík6.3SackofBaltimore,Ireland6.4RaidsintheMediterraneanSea7CapturebyKnightsofMalta8EscapeandreturntoMorocco9Marriagesandissue10Popularculture11Names12Seealso13Externallinks14Notes15WorksconsultedEarlylife[edit]JanJanszoonvanHaerlemwasborninHaarlem,NorthHolland,RepublicoftheNetherlandsin1575.TheEightyYearsWarhadstartedsevenyearspreviouslyandlastedallhislife.Littleisknownofhisearlylife,exceptthathemarriedSoutgenCavein1595andhadtwochildrenwithher,EdwardandLysbeth.HemarriedMargarita,aMoorishwoman,inCartagenaaround1600.Theyhadfourchildren;Anthony,Abraham,Phillip,andCornelis.Privateering[edit]In1600,JanJanszoonbeganasaDutchprivateersailingfromhishomeport,Haarlem,workingforthestatewithlettersofmarquetoharassSpanishshippingduringtheEightyYears'War.WorkingfromtheNetherlandswasinsufficientlyprofitable,soJanszoonoversteppedtheboundariesofhislettersandfoundhiswaytothesemi-independentportstatesoftheBarbaryCoastofnorthAfrica,whencehecouldattackshipsofeveryforeignstate:whenheattackedaSpanishship,heflewtheDutchflag;whenheattackedanyother,hebecameanOttomanCaptainandflewtheredhalf-moonoftheTurksortheflagofanyofvariousotherMediterraneanprincipalities.DuringthisperiodhehadabandonedhisDutchfamily.[1]CapturebyBarbarycorsairsSailplanforaPolacca,firstbuiltbytheBarbarypiratesaroundthe16thcentury,manyscholarsbelievethePolaccawasextensivelyusedbyJanJanszoon.Theshipcouldsailwithalargecrewof75andwasarmedwith24cannonsJanszoonwascapturedin1618atLanzarote(oneoftheCanaryIslands)byBarbarycorsairsandtakentoAlgiersasacaptive.Thereheturned"Turk",orMuslim(astheOttomanEmpirehadsomelimitedinfluenceovertheregion,sometimesEuropeanserroneouslycalledallMuslims"Turks").Itisspeculatedbysomethattheconversionwasforced.[2]Janszoonhimself,however,triedveryhardtoconverthisfellowEuropeanswhowereChristiantobecomeMuslimandwasaverypassionateMuslimmissionary.[3]TheOttomanTurksmaintainedaprecariousmeasureofinfluenceonbehalfoftheirSultanbyopenlyencouragingtheMoorstoadvancethemselvesthroughpiracyagainsttheEuropeanpowers,whichlongresentedtheOttomanEmpire.AfterJanszoon'sconversiontoIslamandthewaysofhiscaptors,hesailedwiththefamouscorsairSulaymanRais,alsoknownasSlemenReis(originallyaDutchmannamedDeVeenboer[4]whomJanszoonhadknownbeforehiscaptureandwho,[5]asJanszoonhimself,hadchosentoconverttoIslam)andwithSimondeDanser.[citationneeded]But,becauseAlgiershadconcludedpeacewithseveralEuropeannations,itwasnolongerasuitableharborfromwhichtosellcapturedshipsortheircargo.So,afterSulaymanRaiswaskilledbyacannonballin1619,JanszoonmovedtotheancientportofSaléandbeganoperatingfromitasaBarbarycorsairhimself.RepublicofSaléSaléinthe1600sMainarticle:RepublicofSaléIn1619,SaléRoversdeclaredtheporttobeanindependentrepublicfreefromtheSultan.Theysetupagovernmentthatconsistedof14pirateleaders,andelectedJanszoonastheirPresident.HewouldalsoserveastheGrandAdmiraloftheirnavy.[6]TheSaléfleettotaledabouteighteenships,allsmallbecauseoftheveryshallowharborentrance.EventheSultanofMorocco,afteranunsuccessfulsiegeofthecity,acknowledgeditssemi-autonomy.ContrarytopopularbeliefthatSultanZidanAbuMaalihadreclaimedsovereigntyoverSaléandappointedJanszoontheGovernorin1624,theSultanmerelyapprovedJanszoon'selectionasPresidentbyformallyappointinghimashisceremonialgovernor.[7]ThewallsofMarrakeshandElBadiPalace,byAdriaenMatham,1640.UnderJanszoon'sleadership,businessinSaléthrived.Themainsourcesofincomeofthisrepublicremainedpiracyanditsby-trades,shippinganddealinginstolenproperty.HistorianshavenotedJanszoon'sintelligenceandcouragewhichreflectedinhisleadershipability.Hewasforcedtofindanassistanttokeepup,resultinginthehiringofafellowcountrymanfromTheNetherlands,MathysvanBostelOosterlinck,whowouldserveashisVice-Admiral.[8]Janszoonhadbecomeverywealthyfromhisincomeaspiraticaladmiral,paymentsforanchorageandotherharbordues,andthebrokerageofstolengoods.ThepoliticalclimateinSaléworsenedtowardtheendof1627,soJanszoonquietlymovedhisfamilyandhisentirepiraticaloperationbacktosemi-independentAlgiers.还有17世纪冰岛人GudridurSimonardottir的奇遇以下内容来自维基百科GueríeurSímonardóttir1627年,北欧带路党JanJanszoon等人,伙同北非柏柏里海盗,洗劫冰岛沿海村镇,掳走数百人。其中有人妻人母GudridurSimonardottir,被贩至北非为奴,受屈受辱。十年后与若干同胞一道被丹麦王克里斯蒂安四世赎回。丹麦有为这批身心受创伤者设立的康复中心和改造课程,负责人是神学院学生HallgrimurPetursson。Simonardottir比他年长16岁,日久生情,珠胎暗结。Petursson放弃前程,随Simonardottir回归故里,得知Simonardottir前夫已死,两人随即完婚。婚后要忍受当地人各种闲话,从她在北非失身失节到年龄差距伤风败俗等等。七年后Petursson时来运转,Skalholt主教授予他圣职,从此蒸蒸日上,大展宏图,青史留名。两人白头到老,Simonardottir比小她16岁的Petursson还多活8年。ThisisanIcelandicname.Thelastnameisapatronymic,notafamilyname;thispersonisreferredtobythegivennameGueríeur.GueríeurSímonardóttir(1598–December18,1682)wasanIcelandicwomanwhowasoneof242peopleabductedfromtheWestmanIslands,Icelandin1627inaraidbyBarbarypirates.[1]TheseraidscametobeknownastheTurkishabductionsandGueríeurbecameknownasTyrkja-Gudda.Afterbeingheldasaslaveandconcubinefornearlyadecade,shewasoneofafewcaptivesransomedbytheDanishking.ShereturnedtoIceland,marryingtheyoungpastorHallgrímurPétursson,whobecameknownforhispoetryandhymns.把奥斯曼帝国看作是与葡萄牙,西班牙,荷兰竞争的海洋帝国也是蛮有意思的一种观点。19世纪中期,为应对荷兰殖民者在苏门答腊的扩张,亚齐(Aceh)人向奥斯曼帝国求援,两者曾在16世纪建立过联系。亚齐苏丹致信当时的奥斯曼苏丹阿卜杜勒-阿齐兹,信中极力渲染荷兰人的威胁,以亚齐与奥斯曼在历史上的宗藩关系为由,请求援助。在此背景下,奥斯曼帝国得到这幅亚齐人呈送的东南亚地图。

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